In contrast to the institutionalization practices, Practices Performed shows great structural variability because the implementation activities for processes vary in level of detail, organizational focus (e.g., unit or organization), and need for planning and documentation.

Plans require management commitment, both from the standpoint of creating them and ensuring that they are followed. The practice for a plan requires that it be developed or revised and that the activities of the processes be based on it.

Certain practices call for establishing and maintaining a strategy. For example, processes that implement quantitative management activities only on selected practices require a quantitative management strategy. The practice for such a strategy also requires that it be developed or revised and that the activities of the processes be based on it.

A documented procedure is usually needed so that the individuals responsible for a task or activity are able to perform it in a repeatable way. Documented procedures are critical for learning from experience. Unless the procedures used are documented, it is difficult for someone to determine exactly how the results were achieved and what might bring better results. When used as a component of preparing responsible individuals, documented procedures contribute to greater consistency in learning and performing a workforce practice.

The formality and level of detail of a documented procedure can vary significantly, from a hand-written desk procedure for a responsible individual to a formal standard operating procedure used throughout the organization. The formality and level of detail depending on who will perform the task or activity (e.g., individual or workgroup), how often it is performed, the importance and intended use of the results, the maturity level of the organization, and the intended recipients of the results.

The People CMM includes practices and goals that establish and maintain specified artifact(s). This phrase connotes a meaning beyond its component terms; it includes its use and documentation as well as periodic updating. For example, “The organization establishes and maintains a documented policy for conducting its Performance Management activities” means that not only must a policy be formulated and documented, but also it must be used throughout the organization, and periodically reviewed and updated to remain current with the organization’s changing conditions.







Practices Performed Instructions:

Responsible individuals plan and coordinate the staffing activities of their units in accordance with documented policies and procedures.

    1. Unit staffing activities are based on the effort and skills required to accomplish the unit’s committed work.
    2. Unit staffing activities are planned and tracked.
    3. Unit staffing activities are conducted according to the organization’s documented policies and procedures.
    4. Unit staffing activities are defined and conducted with the assistance and approval of human resources or other groups with organizational responsibility for staffing practices and activities.
    5. Unit staffing activities are reviewed with appropriate levels of management, as required.

Each unit analyzes its proposed work to determine the effort and skills required.

    1. A unit’s proposed work is analyzed to determine the types of tasks and effort required to perform them.
    2. The types of skills needed to perform the proposed work are identified.

Individuals and workgroups participate in making commitments for work they will be accountable for performing.

    1. Responsible individuals in each unit identify the scope of the proposed work to be performed and the work products or services to be produced and communicate this information to those who will perform the work.
    2. Individuals are involved in reviewing the work proposed for a unit and, when appropriate, approving the inputs (such as requirements) that initiate the work.
    3. Individuals or workgroups are involved in analyzing how work should be allocated within the unit.
    4. Individuals or workgroups are involved in estimating the resources, effort, and schedule required to accomplish the work that they have been allocated.
    5. Individuals or workgroups negotiate to balance their workload with anticipated resources and time.
    6. Individuals or workgroups establish commitments they will be held accountable for a meeting.
    7. Individuals or workgroups participate in reviewing and approving the work commitments made by the unit.
    8. Individuals or workgroups are involved in reviewing progress against commitments and, when necessary, making changes to the commitments regarding their work.
    9. Individuals or workgroups participate in replanning committed work that could alter their commitments.

Each unit documents work commitments that balance its workload with available staff and other required resources.

    1. Each unit’s committed work incorporates and is consistent with the commitments established by individuals or workgroups within the unit.
    2. Units make commitments for which they expect to have adequate staffing or other required resources.
    3. Each unit’s commitments are negotiated with those to whom the unit is accountable.
    4. If the number and type of staff required to accomplish the committed work are not available, potential position openings are identified.
    5. If potential positions required for performing proposed work are not opened, commitments are adjusted accordingly.
    6. Each unit documents its commitments to form the basis for its staffing, performance management, compensation, and other business or workforce activities.

Individual work assignments are managed to balance committed work among individuals and units.

    1. Individual workloads are periodically evaluated to ensure they are balanced, and adjustments are made to individual commitments as needed to improve balance and avoid overload.
    2. When an individual’s committed work is nearing completion, opportunities are sought to apply their effort to other business activities in their current unit or in other units.
    3. When individuals are responsible for committed work in several units.

Position openings within a unit are analyzed, documented, and approved.

    1. When the committed or proposed work exceeds the unit’s current capacity, the unit proposes to open positions for additional staff.
    2. Tasks to be performed by each open position are identified and documented.
    3. Characteristics of candidates who are capable of performing the tasks involved in each open position are defined and documented. 
    4. The primary source(s) for filling each open position is determined.
    5. Position openings are approved according to a documented procedure.

Position openings within the organization are widely communicated.

    1. Appropriate mechanisms are selected and used for communicating open positions.
    2. Open positions are communicated throughout the organization so that qualified individuals can apply for the opening.
    3. Open positions within a unit are regularly communicated to members of the unit so that they can assist in recruiting qualified candidates.

Units with open positions recruit for qualified individuals.

    1. The individual(s) responsible for a unit’s staffing activities coordinate actions taken to attract qualified candidates for open positions.
    2. Units coordinate requirements for open positions with recruiting resources at the organizational level, if they exist, and the unit’s activities are performed within the recruiting context established by the organization.
    3. Within the context of organizational activities, the unit takes action to use both internal and external mechanisms, as appropriate, to attract qualified individuals.
    4. Individuals in a unit are encouraged to identify and attract qualified candidates for open positions, as appropriate.

External recruiting activities by the organization are planned and coordinated with unit requirements.

    1. Responsibilities for external recruiting activities are coordinated between the unit and the organization, and recruiting activities are planned.
    2. Likely sources of candidates who are qualified for open positions are identified.
    3. Position openings are communicated to external sources through relevant media.
    4. A designated individual(s) follows up with external sources to aid in contacting qualified candidates.
    5. Interest from qualified candidates is coordinated with units that have open positions.

A selection process and appropriate selection criteria are defined for each open position.

    1. Selection criteria are defined.
    2. Activities for evaluating the qualifications and fitness of each candidate against the selection criteria are defined.
    3. The selection activities defined are organized into a selection process for the open position.
    4. The selection activities and process are reviewed by an appropriate individual from the human resources function to ensure that they respect the rights and dignity of each candidate chosen for further consideration and that they are consistent with all laws, regulations, and organizational policies governing selection decisions.
    5. The selection process is communicated to the existing workforce and candidates involved.

Each unit, in conjunction with its human resources function, conducts a selection process for each position it intends to fill.

    1. A list of candidates for each position is drawn from recruiting activities, maintained throughout the selection process, and retained for future use.
    2. A set of qualified candidates is invited to undergo further evaluation through the selection process.
    3. The selection process is performed to generate information regarding candidates’ qualifications and fitness relative to the identified selection criteria for the position.
    4. Candidates are provided information regarding the tasks, job characteristics, and work conditions of the position that would help them evaluate their own suitability for the position.
    5. The selected candidate’s background and references are checked according to a documented procedure.
    6. Appropriate members of the unit participate in the selection process and provide input to the selection decision.
    7. Documentation from the selection process is systematically maintained according to a documented procedure.

Positions are offered to the candidate whose skills and other qualifications best fit the open position.

    1. The identified selection criteria are consistently applied to all candidates involved in the selection process.
    2. All qualified candidates are compared regarding their relative fitness for the open position, and the candidate whose skills and other valid attributes best fit the open position is selected.
    3. Timely feedback is provided to all candidates regarding the results of the selection process.

The organization acts in a timely manner to attract the selected candidate.

    1. The hiring process is designed to respond within sufficient time to attract selected candidates.
    2. Within reason and fairness to the existing workforce, the hiring unit attempts to coordinate the arrangements for the position with the attributes and expectations of the selected candidate.
    3. Terms of the offer are negotiated with the selected candidate in accordance with the documented policies of the organization.

The selected candidate is transitioned into the new position.

    1. Responsibilities are assigned for transition activities.
    2. Transition activities are planned and performed.
    3. When individuals transition among work assignments within the organization, workforce activities involving them are either completed or transitioned with them, as appropriate. 
    4. Orientation to the organization is provided to the newly assigned individual.
    5. Orientation to the unit and job responsibilities is provided to the newly assigned individual.

Representative members of a unit participate in its staffing activities.

    1. Unless their participation in specific staffing activities is inappropriate, members of the unit participate in staffing activities.
    2. In some cases, members of a unit may be invited to participate in staffing activities based on relevant characteristics.
    3. Each unit periodically reviews the status of its staffing activities with all members of the unit.
    4. Each unit reviews and documents lessons learned from its staffing activities.

Workforce reduction and other outplacement activities, when required, are conducted according to the organization’s policies and procedures.

    1. The criteria for retaining or releasing individuals are defined in each unit where a workforce reduction or other outplacement activities are planned.
    2. The identified criteria are consistently applied to all individuals subject to workforce reductions or other outplacement actions.
    3. Workforce reduction and outplacement activities are reviewed to ensure that they respect the rights and dignity of each individual and that they are consistent with all applicable laws (e.g., the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act, Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA), Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), etc.), regulations, and organizational policies governing staffing and discharge decisions.
    4. Workforce reduction and outplacement activities are communicated to those affected.
    5. Individuals to be discharged from a unit are made aware of open positions within the organization, when appropriate.
    6. The discharge of individuals from the organization is handled according to a documented procedure.
    7. Communication concerning outplacement(s) is made to individuals or workgroups who might be affected by them.
    8. The secure status of essential individuals the unit or organization intends to retain is reinforced through direct communication.

Discharges for unsatisfactory performance or other valid reasons are conducted according to the organization’s policies and procedures.

    1. Individuals are informed of behaviors that could result in discharge.
    2. Actual behaviors or performance that could result in discharge are documented and discussed with the affected individual.
    3. The decision to discharge an individual is reviewed and approved by appropriate managers and the human resources function before action is taken.
    4. The discharge of an individual from the organization is handled according to a documented procedure.
    5. Communication concerning the discharge is made to individuals or workgroups who might be affected by it.

Causes of voluntary resignation from the organization are identified and addressed.

    1. Cause(s) for voluntary resignation and improvements that could be made to the unit or organization are identified through exit interviews, personal discussions with the departing individual, or through other appropriate means.
    2. The departing individual may be offered an opportunity to talk with someone, other than the person to whom they have been responsible, about the causes for their voluntary departure.
    3. If appropriate, corrective actions are taken that would increase retention.
    4. When trends in causes for voluntary resignation at the unit or organization levels can be identified, corrective action should be taken, if possible.